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Thread: Linux Commands - A-Z (must have)

  1. #1
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    Exclamation Linux Commands - A-Z (must have)

    You can save these commands. It's very useful!!

    An A-Z Index of the Bash command line for Linux.
    alias Create an alias
    A
    apropos Search Help manual pages (man -k)
    apt-get Search for and install software packages (Debian)
    aspell Spell Checker
    awk Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index

    B

    bash GNU Bourne-Again SHell
    bc Arbitrary precision calculator language
    bg Send to background
    break Exit from a loop
    builtin Run a shell builtin
    bzip2 Compress or decompress named file(s)

    C

    cal Display a calendar
    case Conditionally perform a command
    cat Display the contents of a file
    cd Change Directory
    cfdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
    chgrp Change group ownership
    chmod Change access permissions
    chown Change file owner and group
    chroot Run a command with a different root directory
    chkconfig System services (runlevel)
    cksum Print CRC checksum and byte counts
    clear Clear terminal screen
    cmp Compare two files
    comm Compare two sorted files line by line
    command Run a command - ignoring shell functions
    continue Resume the next iteration of a loop
    cp Copy one or more files to another location
    cron Daemon to execute scheduled commands
    crontab Schedule a command to run at a later time
    csplit Split a file into context-determined pieces
    cut Divide a file into several parts

    D

    date Display or change the date & time
    dc Desk Calculator
    dd Convert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records
    ddrescue Data recovery tool
    declare Declare variables and give them attributes
    df Display free disk space
    diff Display the differences between two files
    diff3 Show differences among three files
    dig DNS lookup
    dir Briefly list directory contents
    dircolors Colour setup for `ls'
    dirname Convert a full pathname to just a path
    dirs Display list of remembered directories
    dmesg Print kernel & driver messages
    du Estimate file space usage

    E

    echo Display message on screen
    egrep Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression
    eject Eject removable media
    enable Enable and disable builtin shell commands
    env Environment variables
    ethtool Ethernet card settings
    eval Evaluate several commands/arguments
    exec Execute a command
    exit Exit the shell
    expect Automate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal
    expand Convert tabs to spaces
    export Set an environment variable
    expr Evaluate expressions

    F

    false Do nothing, unsuccessfully
    fdformat Low-level format a floppy disk
    fdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux
    fg Send job to foreground
    fgrep Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string
    file Determine file type
    find Search for files that meet a desired criteria
    fmt Reformat paragraph text
    fold Wrap text to fit a specified width.
    for Expand words, and execute commands
    format Format disks or tapes
    free Display memory usage
    fsck File system consistency check and repair
    ftp File Transfer Protocol
    function Define Function Macros
    fuser Identify/kill the process that is accessing a file

    G

    gawk Find and Replace text within file(s)
    getopts Parse positional parameters
    grep Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
    groups Print group names a user is in
    gzip Compress or decompress named file(s)

    H

    hash Remember the full pathname of a name argument
    head Output the first part of file(s)
    history Command History
    hostname Print or set system name

    I

    id Print user and group id's
    if Conditionally perform a command
    ifconfig Configure a network interface
    ifdown Stop a network interface
    ifup Start a network interface up
    import Capture an X server screen and save the image to file
    install Copy files and set attributes

    J

    join Join lines on a common field

    K

    kill Stop a process from running
    killall Kill processes by name

    L

    less Display output one screen at a time
    let Perform arithmetic on shell variables
    ln Make links between files
    local Create variables
    locate Find files
    logname Print current login name
    logout Exit a login shell
    look Display lines beginning with a given string
    lpc Line printer control program
    lpr Off line print
    lprint Print a file
    lprintd Abort a print job
    lprintq List the print queue
    lprm Remove jobs from the print queue
    ls List information about file(s)
    lsof List open files

    M

    make Recompile a group of programs
    man Help manual
    mkdir Create new folder(s)
    mkfifo Make FIFOs (named pipes)
    mkisofs Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem
    mknod Make block or character special files
    more Display output one screen at a time
    mount Mount a file system
    mtools Manipulate MS-DOS files
    mv Move or rename files or directories
    mmv Mass Move and rename (files)

    N

    netstat Networking information
    nice Set the priority of a command or job
    nl Number lines and write files
    nohup Run a command immune to hangups
    nslookup Query Internet name servers interactively

    O

    open Open a file in its default application
    op Operator access

    P

    passwd Modify a user password
    paste Merge lines of files
    pathchk Check file name portability
    ping Test a network connection
    popd Restore the previous value of the current directory
    pr Prepare files for printing
    printcap Printer capability database
    printenv Print environment variables
    printf Format and print data
    ps Process status
    pushd Save and then change the current directory
    pwd Print Working Directory

    Q

    quota Display disk usage and limits
    quotacheck Scan a file system for disk usage
    quotactl Set disk quotas

    R

    ram ram disk device
    rcp Copy files between two machines
    read read a line from standard input
    readonly Mark variables/functions as readonly
    reboot Reboot the system
    renice Alter priority of running processes
    remsync Synchronize remote files via email
    return Exit a shell function
    rev Reverse lines of a file
    rm Remove files
    rmdir Remove folder(s)
    rsync Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)

    S

    screen Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
    scp Secure copy (remote file copy)
    sdiff Merge two files interactively
    sed Stream Editor
    select Accept keyboard input
    seq Print numeric sequences
    set Manipulate shell variables and functions
    sftp Secure File Transfer Program
    shift Shift positional parameters
    shopt Shell Options
    shutdown Shutdown or restart linux
    sleep Delay for a specified time
    slocate Find files
    sort Sort text files
    source Run commands from a file `.'
    split Split a file into fixed-size pieces
    ssh Secure Shell client (remote login program)
    strace Trace system calls and signals
    su Substitute user identity
    sudo Execute a command as another user
    sum Print a checksum for a file
    symlink Make a new name for a file
    sync Synchronize data on disk with memory

    T

    tail Output the last part of files
    tar Tape ARchiver
    tee Redirect output to multiple files
    test Evaluate a conditional expression
    time Measure Program running time
    times User and system times
    touch Change file timestamps
    top List processes running on the system
    traceroute Trace Route to Host
    trap Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)
    tr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
    true Do nothing, successfully
    tsort Topological sort
    tty Print filename of terminal on stdin
    type Describe a command

    U

    ulimit Limit user resources
    umask Users file creation mask
    umount Unmount a device
    unalias Remove an alias
    uname Print system information
    unexpand Convert spaces to tabs
    uniq Uniquify files
    units Convert units from one scale to another
    unset Remove variable or function names
    unshar Unpack shell archive scripts
    until Execute commands (until error)
    useradd Create new user account
    usermod Modify user account
    users List users currently logged in
    uuencode Encode a binary file
    uudecode Decode a file created by uuencode

    V

    v Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')
    vdir Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b')
    vi Text Editor
    vmstat Report virtual memory statistics

    W

    watch Execute/display a program periodically
    wc Print byte, word, and line counts
    whereis Report all known instances of a command
    which Locate a program file in the user's path.
    while Execute commands
    who Print all usernames currently logged in
    whoami Print the current user id and name (`id -un')
    Wget Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP
    write Send a message to another user

    X

    xargs Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)
    yes Print a string until interrupted
    . Run a command script in the current shell
    ### Comment / Remark
    Last edited by Daveyon; Feb 22, 2009 at 05:08 AM.
    Just an average web developer.

  2. #2
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    Excellent post.

    Mods,

    Can we get this as a sticky so we can find it easily?

  3. #3
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    I dont mean to burst your bubble but if you press the tab button twice in a command line terminal in linux you get most of the commands ...sorry

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    Why are you sorry? I don't understand.

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    ok I am not ...any way you can get all thoes command via that route

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    Well, I did not know about the tab button thing, so I found this list very usefull. Thanks for the post
    There is no wrong or right, only consequencies to action

    "It is the duty of man to make his knowledge so complete in life, so as to make it impossible for any other to take advantage of him" - Marcus Garvey

  7. #7
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    Nice reference. But as bugsy said, easily available. What I'd personally like to see are usage details, obscure commands, etc. Am planning to go Linux pretty much any time now...

    @jamrock: He thought he may have accidentally embarrassed you or something.
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  8. #8
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    @jamrock: He thought he may have accidentally embarrassed you or something.
    Hmmm...

    On my machine, pressing tab twice gives me a list of commands. However, it does not give me an explanation of each command. This document explains each command so it is more convenient.
    Last edited by jamrock; Feb 23, 2009 at 04:29 AM.

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    Would have been nice to also link to the site he copied it from: http://www.ss64.com/bash/
    Which provides much more details about each command.

  10. #10
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    Quote Originally Posted by Arch_Angel View Post
    Would have been nice to also link to the site he copied it from: http://www.ss64.com/bash/
    Which provides much more details about each command.
    I was about to ask for the link.
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